Bonus Features: Inside the Opening of the Ontario Science Centre

Before diving into this post, check out my TVO article about the opening of the Ontario Science Centre in 1969.

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Globe and Mail, April 28, 1965.

In his notes on the project written in January 1965, Moriyama compared the project to a striptease…

The complex will be a “strip-tease,” never exposing all. Let it begin with a mundane beginning. Let it unfold more and more as the people work at it and with it. With the change in sunlight, moonlight, rain and the season, it will keep eluding the finality. Let them return and keep returning until they discover that even the screw head is calculated.

But remember that the most important is the total gestalt. Where architecture ends and exhibits begin should be blurred.

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The front cover of promotional material produced by the province in 1966 under the complex’s original name. The pamphlet begins with a quote from Premier John Robarts: “We are planting a seed from which will grow an undertaking of international significance.”

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This is the story of a Centennial project designed to grow with Canada.

Officially is the salute of the Province of Ontario to the nation’s first century of Confederation.

But it is not just a commemoration of the past. It is an investment in Canada’s present and future in a world of accelerating change.

The Centennial Centre of Science and Technology will be a unique public institution–combining many characteristics and functions of museum, school, university and exhibition.

It will be devoted to helping people of all ages understand the scientific revolution and the impact of technological advances on their lives.

Its ultimate concern will be the welfare of Man himself and his progress toward a better life.

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The pamphlet ends with a promise that the complex will enrich Ontario’s tourism industry and bring conventions to Toronto. A few final words from Minister of Tourism and Information James Auld: “The Centennial Centre of Science and Technology can help people of all ages sharpen their view of the past and adjust to the change that are being demanded of them today. It can give them a clearer idea of the kind of life that lies ahead and how they can make it better than it might otherwise be.”

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Toronto Star, August 20, 1968.

A preview presentation was planned for the 1967 CNE, but as the project fell behind, officials decided it would be too much of a distraction from completing the complex. The following year exhibits focusing on reproduction were shown at the fair.

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Allan Robb Fleming’s logo for the centre, as seen on the cover of a promotional book produced in 1969.

Moriyama’s notes on the logo: “Symbolically, our ideal can be represented by three interlocking circles–man, science and nature–as natural as water, land and air. The fact it appears like a trillium, the logo for the province, is interesting and a definite plus.”

The book is very much a product of its time. The first half is a collage of images, prose, and poetry assembled by Lister Sinclair to “help us understand science and the world in which we live.” If you recall Sinclair’s long run as host of CBC Radio’s Ideas, you can picture him reading this section aloud, accompanied by appropriate music.

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The second half presents 14 pages of line drawings of exhibits. Flipping through this section will be nostalgic to anyone who visited the centre over its first few decades.

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Two of the most popular opening exhibits are seen here: the kalimbas and the bicycle generators.

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Globe and Mail, September 27, 1969.

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Toronto Star, September 27, 1969.

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Lineup when the Ontario Science Centre opened to the general public, September 28, 1969. Photo by Dick Darrell. Toronto Star Photo Archive, Toronto Reference Library, tspa_0110370f.

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Key to Toronto, October 1969.

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“Physics. By Pulling down on the lever and raising the weight, Sandra learns about the principles of leverage. Here, since the fulcrum is so close to handle, it takes more effort.” Photo by Reg Innell, originally published in the December 27, 1969 edition of the Toronto Star. Toronto Star Photo Archive, Toronto Reference Library, tspa_0110351f.

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Toronto Star, December 27, 1969.

Shaping Toronto: Centennial Projects

Originally published on Torontoist on February 24, 2016.

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A mark of the centennial at the fountain at Rosehill Reservoir.

From neighbourhood tree plantings to the international spectacle of Expo 67, Canada proudly celebrated its centennial. The stylized maple leaf logo graced everything from historical sites to reservoirs. Cities and towns applied for governments grants to spruce up parks, restore historical sites, and build attractions to last long after the centennial spirit faded.

Across Toronto, many legacies remain of, as Pierre Berton’s book on 1967 termed it, “the last good year.” There are the community centres and parks in the pre-amalgamation suburbs with “centennial” in their name. Celebratory murals lining school walls. Caribana and its successors celebrating Caribbean culture each year.

Many of these projects received funding from programs overseen by a federal commission, whose work sometimes felt like an Expo footnote. “They felt like poor cousins,” Centennial Commission PR director Peter Aykroyd (Dan’s father) observed. “Expo was so big, so appealing, so clearly headed for success that it discouraged those who were plodding away on the less focused, something-for-everyone program of the Commission.”

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North York Centennial Arena (later named in honour of Herb Carnegie), 1967. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 217, Series 249, File 27, Item 7.

As is our habit, Toronto wanted spectacular major centennial projects. As is also our habit, they were mired in bureaucratic squabbles involving penny-pinching city councillors, politicians and pundits who swore delays embarrassed us in front of the rest of the country, and bad luck.

Discussions over marking the centennial began in earnest in September 1962 when the Toronto Planning Board proposed a $25 million cultural complex. With financial pruning, this evolved into a $9 million centennial program focused on the St. Lawrence Centre for the Arts, which included a repertory theatre, arts and culture facilities along Front Street, and a renovation of the decaying St. Lawrence Hall. Proponents also tossed in an expansion of the Art Gallery of Toronto (now the AGO) and refreshing Massey Hall. Mayor Phil Givens supported the project wholeheartedly—during his re-election campaign in 1964, he said “I have never been so sincerely convinced in my life that something is right.”

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Sketch of a proposed theatre inside the St. Lawrence Centre, Globe and Mail, March 20, 1965.

A key opponent was councillor/former mayor Allan Lamport, who believed the city couldn’t afford the project, and was only willing to support the St. Lawrence Hall rehab. “He is barren of ideas concerning what the city might put in its place,” a Globe and Mail editorial criticized. “It is this sort of negative approach which could find Toronto celebrating the nation’s birthday with nothing more impressive and enduring than a pageant in the Canadian National Exhibition grandstand.”

The fate of the St. Lawrence Centre see-sawed over the next few years, as council battled over the budget. When it was clear the project wouldn’t be remotely ready for 1967, the city switched its focus to St. Lawrence Hall. When the 1960s started, the site was split among several owners, and there was at least one proposal to replace it with an office building and parking deck. Under the leadership of a committee of local architects and construction officials, the restoration of the hall appeared to be on track as 1967 dawned.

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“Searching for bodies; city firemen comb through the rubble of the east wing of St. Lawrence Hall which collapsed yesterday while being restored as a Centennial project. No one was injured and no bodies were found. Credit for this is given foreman Jack McGowan who cleared the building and sent men to stop traffic only minutes before the four-storey section crumbled in a cloud of dust.” Photo by Dick Darrell, originally published in the March 11, 1967 edition of the Toronto Star. Toronto Public Library, Toronto Star Photo Archive, tspa_0000233f.

On March 10, 1967, the northeast portion of the building collapsed. The press offered unanimous support to keep the project going, such as the following Star editorial:

The restoration of the old St. Lawrence Hall was one centennial project upon which everyone in Toronto was happily united. Today, when a section of the building lies in rubble, we can be sure the determination that it will live in its former glory is stronger than ever…it wasn’t until the report of the collapse that most of us realized how much the restoration of the historic old hall was coming to mean in this centennial year, troubled with apathy and dispute over other projects…Our appetite for history has been whetted and we need the completion of the St. Lawrence Hall to satisfy it. So light the torches and beat the drums, we’ve got a building to raise.

While the restoration endured further delays from a series of city-wide construction strikes (which prompted the city to sneak in concrete via the back entrance), the refurbished St. Lawrence Hall celebrated its rebirth when Governor-General Roland Michener officially re-opened it during a December 28, 1967 gala.

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Globe and Mail, April 28, 1965.

The St. Lawrence Centre finally opened in February 1970, several months after another delayed centennial project. When the province announced a science museum in 1964, it chose 180 acres of parkland at Don Mills and Eglinton. The city opposed the suburban location, preferring the CNE grounds, where Givens felt there were better connections to highways and transit. Unless the province provided compelling reasons regarding the CNE’s unsuitability, he threatened to hold up the transfer of the Don Valley site. The province wasn’t moved. Initially known as the Centennial Centre of Science and Technology, the project suffered numerous construction delays and bureaucratic bickering before opening as the Ontario Science Centre in September 1969.

Other local centennial projects had smoother rides, even if they occasionally ruffled egos. Leaside was the first to complete theirs, a community centre in Trace Manes Park which opened in September 1966, mere months before the town was absorbed into East York. The latter unveiled their major project, the restoration of Todmorden Mills, in May 1967. Mayor True Davidson scornfully called Leaside’s project “a change house for tennis players,” while touting Todmorden as “one of the most ambitious projects in Metro.”

The work on St. Lawrence Hall and Todmorden Mills demonstrated what Pierre Berton later called the true legacy of the centennial: recognizing the value of local heritage.

In 1967, the idea of preserving something of the past by restoring old buildings and preserving historic landscapes was a novel one at a time when local governments were still applauded for bulldozing entire neighbourhoods in the name of “urban renewal.” The Centennial marked the beginning of the end of that philosophy. “Heritage” had come into its own when Victorian mansions that had once seemed grotesquely ugly began to be viewed as monuments to a gilded age. Old railway stations, banks, even 1930s gas stations would be seen as living history lessons.

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Globe and Mail, May 20, 1967.

So far, the upcoming Canada 150 celebrations show little of the fervour associated with the centennial. An August 2014 city report recognized that the influx of legacy projects associated with the Pan/Parapan Am Games made it unlikely there would be similar scale construction to mark the country’s 150th birthday next year. A more recent report promotes marking the occasion through cultural festivals and community heritage programs. Unless an enduring celebration like Caribana/Caribbean Carnival emerges, it’s likely the reminders of 1967 will outlast those of 2017.

Additional material from 1967: The Last Good Year by Pierre Berton (Toronto: Doubleday Canada, 1997); The Best Place To Be: Expo 67 and Its Time by John Lownsbrough (Toronto: Allen Lane, 2012); St. Lawrence Hall (Toronto: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1969); the December 27, 1963, September 2, 1964, June 17, 1965, and May 23, 1967 editions of the Globe and Mail; and the March 11, 1967 edition of the Toronto Star.