Bonus Features: 19th-century NIMBYism and the Typhus Epidemic in Ontario

Before diving into this post, please read the related TVO article.

The coverage of the court case in the October 6, 1847 edition of the British Whig against Kingston city officials for allowing the emigrant sheds to obstruct traffic is dense, so here are some highlights.

british whig 1847-10-06 complaint about sheds 1 opinion

First off, the paper’s opinion, which praises the efforts of the city officials, and references the recent death of Toronto bishop Michael Power.

The indictment contained four counts: obstruction of Emily Street by erecting a building upoin it; the “erection of privies, near that street and near King Street, and also near the waters of the harbour, to the nuisance of all persons in the street, or dwelling in the adjacent houses, and whereby the waters which were generally used by the neighbourhood became unfit for use;” erecting emigrant sheds near King Street, filling them with the sick and dead to the nuisance of all; and that the sheds were built by unknown people and emigrants and assembled on site.

british whig 1847-10-06 complaint about sheds 1 nimby testimony

A sampling of complaints, including the NIMBY I quoted in the article (a John P. Bower, Esq.).

The defence attacked several of the complainants, while holding up the noble aims of the city officials offering assistance to the emigrants. For example:

The Baron de Rottenburg, who bears no love to Emigrants, had to board the west windows of his house to keep away an imaginary infection; and, more serious than this, the amiable Baroness had to make liberal use of lavender water, and was put to the unendurable trouble of placing scent bottles to her fastidious nostrils. To be sure, the great inconvenience which the noble Baron and Baroness have sustained, is of more consequence and greater weight, than if thousands of these pooe Irish Emigrants should die for want, with hunger, and disease.

Kind of reminds you of arguments surrounding relaunching the economy versus preventing potential deaths, doesn’t it?

british whig 1847-10-06 verdict 1

british whig 1847-10-06 verdict 2

The verdict. Note that while the defendants were judged guilty, the jury appreciated their conduct.

packet 1847-07-17 medical advice about typhus 400px

From the July 17, 1847 edition of the Bytown Packet (which evolved into the Ottawa Citizen), advice on how to prevent catching infectious fevers like typhus.

bc 1847-07-20 grasett obit

An editorial eulogizing Dr. George Grasett, from the July 20, 1847 edition of the British Colonist.

bc 1847-10-05 power obit 1bc 1847-10-05 power obit 2

Portions of Michael Power’s obituary from the October 5, 1847 edition of the British Colonist.

the times 1847-10-30 power obit 500

Power’s death was noted on the other side of the Atlantic, in pieces such as this roundup of the typhus situation from the October 30, 1847 edition of the Times.

The Book Cellar

From November 2011 through July 2012 I wrote the “Past Pieces of Toronto” column for OpenFile, which explored elements of the city which no longer exist. The following was originally posted on June 24, 2012.

20120106bookcellar

Books in Canada, May 1971.

According to veteran Star books columnist Philip Marchand, the test of a good bookstore was simple. “Take a real reader, a habitual browser of books. Imagine that person walking by the bookstore en route to somewhere else. Can he or she resist the temptation to enter the bookstore? To while away a few minutes—well, half-an-hour—instead of attending to business?” The Book Cellar in Yorkville met his criteria, especially its magazine room: “Facing away from the from the Hazelton Lanes courtyard, the room is both quiet and cheerful. To stand there in the afternoon sun, browsing through magazines, listening to strains of Vivaldi or Billie Holiday, is to experience peace.”

Despite the implication of its name, the Book Cellar only spent its first year in a subterranean space, underneath a record store at 363 Yonge Street. Launched in 1961 by Bruce and Vivienne Surtees, an Australian couple who came to Canada on their honeymoon and stayed, the store quickly made its mark as the place to find obscure magazines in the city. Within a year, the store moved to a small home on Bay Street near Bloor, where it drew the attention of Star columnist Pierre Berton. While browsing the magazine shelves in April 1962, Berton counted around 850 magazine titles on display, ranging from literary journals to the Journal of the Institute for Sewage Purification. When he asked about the store’s worst seller, he was pointed to an obscure entertainment publication called TV Guide.

bcwall

Globe and Mail, July 14, 1967.

While other retailers in Yorkville quickly scrubbed off graffiti left by “hippies,” the Book Cellar encouraged free expression by installing a ceramic tile wall. “With felt-point pens and grease pencils,” the Globe and Mail noted in June 1967, “the young non-conformists scribbled slogans political, literary, religious, philosophical, irreligious and mostly funny. They left tokens of their way of life—if that’s what it is—on the tiles.” The wall was a wise investment—“Some Book Cellar patrons have been visiting more frequently, just to keep up with the Big Beard. Some hippies even buy books.”

In 1968 the store moved to 142 Yorkville Avenue, which was later incorporated into the Hazelton Lanes complex, and ran a second location for a time at Charles and Yonge. Both were included in a 1970 Toronto Life roundup of the city’s best bookstores. “If you’re under 30 and moving with the times,” the article noted, “the Book Cellars…will most likely have what you want.” Two typical customers were depicted: “a woman who asks for Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics (sold out) and, apologetically, for Diary of a Mad Housewife (“It’s for a friend”)” and “a young man who checks the price of The Joyous Cosmology and reappears ten minutes later, having panhandled $1.95 to buy it.”

The store attracted various literary types among its staff over the years, including future Conrad Black amour Barbara Amiel, playwright John Krizanc, newspaper columnist Joey Slinger, and writer/musician Paul Quarrington. Several legends surrounded Quarrington’s tenure at the Book Cellar, including hustling Desmond Tutu out of the store when the Nobel Peace Prize winner was found autographing copies of his own books and ticking off action movie star Charles Bronson.

When customers planning to phone in their holiday orders reached the Book Cellar in November 1997 they were notified that the store was closing. While some reports indicated that competition from Chapters’ recently opened flagship on Bloor Street ate into profits so much that the store couldn’t make its rent, owner Lori Bruner cited other factors. She noted that foot traffic had declined by the store, and that strict credit limits imposed by publishers following the bankruptcy of the Edwards Books & Art chain had affected her ability to stock the shelves. The store’s closure meant that browsers who found the Book Cellar as serene as Philip Marchand did had to find other peaceful corners of the Toronto bookstore universe.

Sources: the June 14, 1967, January 14, 1998, and April 12, 2008 editions of the Globe and Mail, the May 15, 1970 edition of Quill and Quire, the April 30, 1962, September 26, 1996, November 27, 1997, and October 26, 2009 editions of the Toronto Star, and the November 1970 edition of Toronto Life.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

qq 70-05-15 book cellar 1

qq 70-05-15 book cellar 2

Quill and Quire, May 15, 1970.

qq 74-08 book cellar display

Quill and Quire, August 1974.

tspa_0063850f_640px

“Linda Lovelace, star of the widely-banned porno film, Deep Throat, is in Toronto to promote her new movie, Linda Lovelace for President, an above-ground comedy which opens tonight. Here she autographs copies of the book of the same name in the Book Cellar.” Photo by Boris Spremo, 1975. Toronto Star Photo Archive, Toronto Public Library, tspa_0063850f.

No Necking Allowed in Long Branch, 1949

The following narrative speaks for itself, as an example of the “Toronto the Good” mentality (present in what was then a suburb) running up against the emergence of postwar teenage culture.

gm 1949-03-10 necking in long branch

Globe and Mail, March 10, 1949.

gm 1949-03-22 necking in long branch

Globe and Mail, March 22, 1949.

boxoffice 49-04-09 anti-necking in long branch

Box Office, April 9, 1949.

Bonus Features: “Stop the Slaughter of Innocents”

This post offers bonus material for a piece I wrote for TVO – you may want to check that out first

world 1919-11-12 anti-vax ad

Toronto World, November 12, 1919.

Toronto medical officer of health Dr. Charles Hastings understood his actions in implementing a mandatory vaccination program might not be popular, especially among those who objected on grounds of personal liberty. “Why all this interference with personal liberty and individual rights?” he asked in his November 1919 monthly report. “Because British justice, properly interpreted, means that when the liberty and rights of the individual are not in the interests of the welfare of the masses, the rights of the individual must yield.”

globe 1919-11-13 picture of kids waiting to be vaccinated_Page_1_Image_0001

The Globe, November 13, 1919.

More from The Globe on the City Hall clinic: “It was positively sustaining, that odour of disinfectants, and as one of the City Hall staff remarked, one whiff of it was almost enough to safeguard a whole family against the threatened scourge.”

tely 1919-11-14 vaccination cartoon_Page_1_Image_0001

Cartoon by George Shields, the Telegram, November 14, 1919.

Toronto should realize that Dr. Hastings is not a vaccinationist for the sake of vaccination. The question of compulsory vaccination will not arise if the citizens who are not anti-vaccinationists on principle give themselves, their families and their neighbours the benefit of the doubt and GET VACCINATED. – editorial, the Telegram, November 15, 1919

globe 1919-11-19 anti-vax rally at massey hall ad_Page_1_Image_0001

The Globe, November 19, 1919. Dr. Hastings did not show up.

tely 1919-11-20 anti-vaxxer meeting

The Telegram, November 20, 1919.

tely 1919-12-16 hastings and santa cartoon

Cartoon by George Shields, the Telegram, December 16, 1919.

star 1920-01-22 anti-vax alderman has smallpox

Toronto Star, January 22, 1920.

Ah, the irony. I admit it – I couldn’t stop laughing when I read this story. The Globe‘s headline was even more blunt: “Anti-vaccination Champion Ald. Ryding, Has Smallpox.” Ryding, who had represented the Junction on city council since 1912, survived and continued to serve as an alderman into the early 1930s.

Let’s Visit the Harry Horne Booth at the CNE (and eat some Nanaimo bars along the way)

IMG_0182a

Nanaimo bars. Yum.

One of my favourite desserts is Nanaimo bars. The mix of chocolatey and coconutty goodness with creamy vanilla filling is irresistible to my tastebuds. Every Christmas, my mom sends me home with batch that my wife and I ration throughout January. For years, a key ingredient for the delectable yellow filling was Harry Horne’s Custard Powder.

cg 1920-05-07 horne custard powder ad

 

Canadian Grocer, May 7, 1920.

Its advertising claims may be debatable, but it made mighty fine desserts. Besides custard powder, the brand (later reduced to Horne’s)  lingered on for decades on products ranging from barbecue sauce to seafood sauce. Its last owner, Select Food Products, appears to have stopped making the custard powder the mid-2010s, but a sales sheet listed on its website indicated a Horne’s branded gravy was still available as of 2020.

pure food 1

While researching the early days of Loblaws last year, I found a section in the September 9, 1932 edition of Canadian Grocer highlighting the exhibits in the Pure Food Building at that year’s Canadian National Exhibition. Located on the same site as the current Food Building, it served as the focal point of the fair’s food displays and samples from 1922 to 1953.

The company with the most displays in this section? Harry Horne.

 

cg 1914-07-03 hornes ad

Canadian Grocer, July 3, 1914.

Flipping through back issues of Canadian Grocer, it appears Horne started as a food distributor. The location listed in this ad is, as of January 2020, a Gabby’s restaurant. Foster Clark’s custard powder is still available in Australia (what would an Aussie version of the Nanaimo bar be like?).

globe 1926-05-08 horne ad

The Globe, May 8, 1926.

Some of Horne’s advertising reflected the prejudices and stereotypes of the day.

By 1932, the company had a storefront operation at 1297-1301 Queen Street West, a site currently occupied by the Parkdale library branch.

horne 1

horne 2

horne 3

horne 4

horne 5

horne 6

horne 7

horne 8

Other displays featured in this section included Borden, Kellogg’s, Kuntz Brewery, Libby’s, Lipton’s Tea, Ovaltine, Peek Frean, Procter and Gamble, Tea-Bisk, Welch’s Grape Juice, and Weston’s.

rhl 1952-08-14 horne in car accident

The Liberal (Richmond Hill), August 14, 1952.

Horne survived the accident, and passed away six years later.

weston-york times 1973-09-27 nanaimo bar recipes

Weston-York Times, September 27, 1973

A pair of Nanaimo bar recipes from a community cookbook section. Note varying amounts of custard powder used. The Canadian Encyclopedia gives a detailed history, placing the first published recipe in a 1952 Nanaimo hospital cookbook, but notes there are plenty of other claimants.

star 1978-09-24 nanaimo bar recipe

Toronto Star, September 24, 1978.

Harwood’s recipe for Nanaimo bars first appeared in the Star four years earlier, in a feature on ballerina diets. According to the February 20, 1974 article, Harwood’s dessert “established her culinary reputation in the ballet field.” By contrast, Veronica Tennant was known for “sole baked in white wine, then bathed in a cream sauce with green grapes and broiled until delicately golden.”

It’s a New Year. Let’s Take a Look.

20121231eatonsnewyear

Toronto Star, December 31, 1969. Full-size version.

As the action-packed year that was 1969 drew to a close, many drew on the moon landing and its images of Earth to reflect on the state of the world and its future. Eaton’s chose its final ad of its centennial year to contemplate the issues of the day.

Fifty years on, many of the concerns discussed in this ad remain. Elders still belittle idealistic youth. Holdouts still refuse to clean up our world. War is still with us, with the lessons of earlier global conflicts being rapidly forgotten in some quarters. Feeding and housing people at affordable levels remains problematic, and grows worse in “developed” nations. Great strides have been made against discrimination, but old attitudes die hard and are, in some cases, slow to change or stumbling backwards. And responsibility, especially in the political realm?

(cue maniacal laughter)

tely 1969-12-31 editorials on 1960s and 1970s

Cartoon by Yardley Jones, the Telegram, December 31, 1969.

As for the comment that “if the sixties taught us anything, they taught us once and for all that we are a community,” a lot of people took that to heart and have done their best to work toward the common good. But a loud segment has gone the other way, preferring to promote divisiveness for personal and political gain. Excessive partisanship seems to be leading us down a dead-end road or worse. The media trades on despair and misery, driving people deeper into those states, making it hard some days to focus on those working towards a hopeful, survivable future.

Maybe we need to channel our anger better, ignoring rage for the sake of rage. Anger requires meaning, not a Tweeted outburst or hanging on every outrageous comment somebody makes because they require attention 24/7. Or, to paraphrase this ad, our future will be full enough of rational problems without having to expend energy on irrational ones.

Except that we will.

Such is life.

My resolution for 2020 is seeking the positive and productive wherever I can in an environment dominated by doom, gloom, and more doom. I will strive to write material and share historical knowledge and research that enlightens and entertains, reconnect with my surroundings and community, temper cynicism with hope and compassion, and generally help others whenever I can without my misanthropic impulses getting in the way (except when cursing at people in this city who don’t care to know how to drive, bike, or walk).

***

What this site will look like in 2020? While there’s still plenty of material waiting to be updated, I will add more new content as time permits. There will be more pieces based on present-day wanderings around the city. I’d like to write some general posts about history and its processes, but may either start a separate site for those, or include them on my still-in-progress professional page. Depending on interest, I may try to launch some tie-in activities, such as walks or talks. I feel like this is the year I need to break through a few barriers, and hope you’ll join me as I smash through them.

Goodbye 1919, Hello 1920

world 1920-01-01 cartoon

Toronto World, January 1, 1920.

“Toronto folk, old, young, and middle-aged, will celebrate this New Year’s Eve as they never have before,” the Star predicted on its December 31, 1919 front page. Noting that, with most veterans home from the aftermath of the First World War, it was the first true peacetime New Year’s Eve, “so that money and time have been cast to the winds and they are going at it with feathers flying and goodwill bubbling over.”

“People in Toronto want a wholesome good time tonight if they never had it before or never expect to again, and I am going to do all in my power to give it to them,” King Edward Hotel manager George O’Neil told the Star. He expected 1,500 partiers to ring in the new year. Revelers at the Balmy Beach Club witnessed an eight-year-old girl dressed as 1920 driving “Father Time across the ballroom and out of the door, then come back herself and give an exhibition toe dance.”

me 1920-01-02 new year opened in staid manner

Mail and Empire, January 2, 1920.

The Mail and Empire also covered the happenings in the city on New Year’s Day.

me 1920-01-01 new year cartoon

Cartoon by Fontaine Fox. Mail and Empire, January 1, 1920.

The Globe’s year-end editorial focused on the “Week of Prayer” organized by the World’s Evangelical Alliance, as well as some sort of prayers suggested by “The Great Commission Prayer League of Chicago.” One sensed the rambling piece about the power of prayer had the deep religious convictions of Globe publisher William Gladstone Jaffray, a man who some employees believed gave more to his church than them. As the piece concluded, “the new year will prove one of unspeakable blessing to every life if not a day is permitted to pass without going aside with God for solitary prayer.”

globe 1920-01-01 editorial

The Globe, January 1, 1920.

The New Year’s Day Globe editorial contemplated an issue still plaguing us a century later, widening economic disparity. The third and fifth paragraphs feel especially relevant.

globe 1919-12-31 editorials on new year and municipal elections

The Globe, December 31, 1919.

The Globe also suggested voters casting their ballots in the municipal election on New Year’s Day should re-elect mayor Tommy Church based on his support for the city’s takeover of the privately-operated Toronto Railway Company streetcar system (a goal finished with the establishment of the TTC in 1921). The paper gave other reasons why to deny pugnacious city councillor Sam McBride the mayor’s chair.

tely 1919-12-31 ridiculous headline

The Telegram, December 31, 1919.

The Globe’s dislike of McBride was muted compared to the Telegram’s. As with many positions held by the Tely during the long editorship of Black Jack Robinson, its hatred of McBride bordered on the pathological. Given the Tely’s fierce support for Tommy Church in general and Adam Beck’s plans for the expansion of the provincially-owned hydro system and electric interurban railways, and its suspicion that McBride supported private ownership of both, its election headlines were, like the one above, were ridiculous. It may not have helped Robinson’s mood that Beck was seriously ill with pneumonia during the campaign.

tely 1919-12-31 page 16 anti-mcbride cartoon

Cartoon by George Shields, The Telegram, December 31, 1919.

During a December 29 speech at the Central YMCA, McBride observed that since the death of Telegram founder John Ross Robertson the previous year, the paper had “changed and has become as different as night from day. If the old gentleman were alive and could see the amount of ink and paper that is being used to revile honest public men he would turn over in his grave.” Cue an outpouring of vitriol on the paper’s New Year’s Eve editorial page two days later which declared Robertson’s regrets over supporting continued private ownership of the streetcars when the TRC won its contract in 1891, and his support for Beck and Church.

me 1919-12-31 council endorsements mcaree on 1919'

Mail and Empire, December 31, 1919.

The Mail and Empire took a more balanced position, declaring in its New Year’s Eve editorial that a mayor who combined the strengths of Church and McBride “would be nearly as possible a perfect Chief Magistrate.”

star 1919-12-31 front page

Toronto Star, December 31, 1919.

The Star favoured McBride, as evidenced in this front-page endorsement, and scattered as many pro-McBride articles in its pages as the Tely had blasting him, depicting him as a defender of public ownership despite occasional disagreements with proposed radial railway plans.

star 1920-01-01 new faces in council

Toronto Star, January 1, 1920.

Ultimately, the 1920 municipal election is remembered not for its mayoral contest (which Church won), but the results in Ward 3’s aldermanic race, where Constance Hamilton became the first woman elected to city council in Toronto and Ontario. But that’s a story for another day…

As editors were so wrapped up in the municipal election, apart from the Globe there was less reflection on Toronto’s editorial pages on what had been an eventful year around the world. Maybe they felt events like the Paris Peace Conference, the Winnipeg General Strike, and the election of the UFO government in Ontario had seen enough type. Maybe they were weary of the strife which dominated the headlines.

But there were plenty of reflections elsewhere. Here is a sampling of cartoons and comment from across Canada and the United States.

Canada

kdt 1919-12-31 front page cartoon

kdt 1919-12-31 editorial small

Kitchener Daily Telegraph, December 31, 1919.

 

albertan 1919-12-31 editorial

The Albertan, December 31, 1919.

sherbrooke record 1919-12-31 editorial 6

Sherbrooke Record, December 31, 1919.

United States

brooklyn eagle 1920-01-02 editorial cartoon

Brooklyn Eagle, January 2, 1920.

ny herald 1920-01-02 cartoon of 1919

New York Herald, January 2, 1920.

Figures depicted in this roundup of the year include Lady Nancy Astor (the first sitting female British MP), Mexican president Venustiano Carranza (who would be assassinated in 1920), American army general John J. Pershing, Emma Goldman (who was deported along with 248 other radicals), the Prince of Wales (who stopped in the US after his Canadian tour). I’m guessing the “Palmer” cowboy with the long lasso is US attorney-general A. Mitchell Palmer, who was notorious for his anti-radical Palmer Raids. The “King and Queen” visiting Uncle Sam might be Albert I and Elisabeth of Belgium, who paid their respects at Theodore Roosevelt’s grave that year.

ny world 1919-12-31 editorial cartoon

New York World, December 31, 1919.

omaha daily bee 1919-12-31 editorial

Omaha Bee, December 31, 1919.

pittsburgh press 1919-12-31 editorial cartoon

Pittsburgh Press, December 31, 1919.

This cartoon appeared in numerous papers on both sides of the border.

pittsburgh press 1919-12-31 editorial

Pittsburgh Press, December 31, 1919.

seattle star 1920-01-01 editorial

Seattle Star, January 1, 1920.

washington star 1919-12-31 front page cartoon

Washington Star, December 31, 1919.

washington star 1920-01-01 front page cartoon

Washington Star, January 1, 1920.