A Handbook to the Royal Ontario Museum, 1956

Originally published as a “Historicist” column on Torontoist on July 9, 2011.

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Cover of The Royal Ontario Museum: A Handbook (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1956), designed by Claire Wheeler.

“A museum is a home of muses and in Canada, far enough from the slopes of Mount Helicon in space and time, those traditional patrons of the arts and sciences have their worthiest habitat in the Royal Ontario Museum.” Whoever wrote the 1956 edition of The Royal Ontario Museum: A Handbook felt these were appropriate words to introduce visitors to the wonders within.

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Map of the main floor.

A few years earlier, in their travel guide Ontario in Your Car, John and Marjorie Mackenzie had kind words to say about the museum:

Some American naval friends of ours, who had spent many years in the Orient, said that they thought the Chinese Art Exhibition at this museum was the finest they had ever seen. But this is only one of the many and varied exhibits which are housed here. It is, indeed, “the record of Nature through countless ages; the arts of man through all the years.” If you have children with you, they are sure to be entranced by the huge skeletons of the Dinosauria, and by the Indian figures, arranged in life-like family groups.

The ROM of 1956 was an H-shaped building consisting of the original wing along Philosophers Walk opened in 1914 and an addition one built along Queen’s Park that welcomed its first visitors in 1933. The museum operated as a branch of the University of Toronto, an arrangement that lasted until 1968. It was open daily except on Mondays—we imagine the educational nature of the institution redeemed it in the eyes of all but the most zealous no-fun-on-Sunday types. Anyone desperate to wander in on Monday could catch a small glimpse of the exhibits on their way to the coffee shop that remained open. Admission was free except on Wednesdays and Fridays, when adults paid a quarter. The same admission fee applied for any of the seven “open nights” held throughout the year, where visitors could linger until 10 p.m. in the exhibit areas and enjoy guest speakers. For annual fees of either $5 (for Ontario residents outside of Toronto) or $10 (locals), members enjoyed perks like free admission, invitations to previews of special exhibits, guided tours for up to 10 people, two event calendars per year, an annual report, and discounts on U of T extension courses offered through the museum.

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Kidney iron ore: not so tasty with steak in a pie.

The handbook’s gallery coverage was split into three main sections: the Earth (rocks and minerals), life (animals), and the “arts of Man.” Among the curios shown in the first section was a rock that resembled a cluster of kidneys.

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Entrance to the Geology gallery.

The geology galleries enticed visitors with displays that included discoveries made during construction of the original Yonge subway line and a showcase on a site now associated with green space and a weekend market:

The west gallery is entered through a foyer, where photo-murals and specimens are displayed in an attractive manner. Three of the photographs depict geologists at work, while others pointedly illustrate many of the topics explained in the exhibits throughout the gallery. Of special interest is a plaque of the colourful building stones used decoratively throughout the museum building. The main displays follow in a series of alcoves, each alcove having a central theme. The first of these units depicts some of the rocks, and the geological history of southern Ontario, while other exhibits illustrate the geological information revealed by the excavations for the Toronto subway. The west wall of the alcove is dedicated to the Don Valley brickyard, where the sands and clays are the evidence of an extremely varied climate in the Toronto area during the past several hundred thousand years.

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Duck-billed dinosaur.

Then as now, dinosaurs were a children’s favourite. Most of the museum’s collection originated in the badlands of Alberta. Specimens were divided into five simple streams: duck-billed, horned, armoured, carnosaurs, and ostrich-like. Duck-billed dinosaurs like the one depicted in the guide were described as “probably inoffensive, herbivorous dinosaurs normally walking on four legs but capable of rapid motion on their hind legs when pursued.”

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“House Fly: enlarged models tell the story of its unwholesome relations to Man.”

One exhibit the handbook described at length but didn’t show was a tribute to the passenger pigeon. The exhibit attempted to re-create the extinct bird’s habitat at Forks of the Credit during the 1870s:

In the background looms the blue-grey mass of the escarpment. In the middle distance lies a pioneer clearing in which stands a log cabin, and the foreground is the edge of a fine, old, beech-maple wood. The migrating pigeons, in their hundreds of thousands, stream across the sky and some are alighting to feed in the fields and at the edge of the wood. One drinks from a sap bucket while perched on the spile driven into a sugar maple. On the ground a male and female are billing in the fashion of domestic pigeons.

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“From Muskrat to Hudson Seal, an Economic Exhibit telling the story of a fur coat.”

But the handbook did contain a nice picture of a display that would displease anti-fur activists: how a muskrat became a Hudson Seal coat.

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“Wooden head covered with skin, African, from Calabar, Nigeria.”

In the transition from describing Eurocentric antiquities to those from the rest of the world in the “Arts of Man” section, the author made a statement about Western culture that surely would never be allowed in current museum literature.

Although the mechanical achievements of the European peoples have probably excelled all others, their civilization is, after all, that of only a small portion of mankind, and it is fitting in a Museum such as this that the fact should be clearly recognised. The ground floor has been given over, therefore, to the exhibition of the arts and crafts of aboriginal America, Africa and the Pacific Islands.

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Gathering around a totem pole as an example of “teaching with objects.”

The handbook ends with a section on the museum’s education services. “For child and adult alike,” the author noted, “the experience of seeing and learning about real things makes history live and develops a better understanding of the relationship of man and nature throughout time and space.” The school group clustered around the totem pole likely came from within 250 kilometres of the museum. Before visiting, they would have been asked to figure out which areas of the museum they were most interested in, as long as those subjects matching up with their school’s curriculum.

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Toronto Star, January 25, 1956.

As for students in remote areas, museum staff armed with suitcases full of exhibits travelled to them. One trip earlier in the year was spotlighted in the Toronto Star:

History is being taken to Ontario school children in suitcases. Royal Ontario Museum teachers are taking historical items to Northern Ontario schools for pupils to study. Julia Laronde, North Bay, holds a snowshoe and an Indian hammer. Sharon Shore is all decked out like a fur trapper. This year marks the eight annual “expedition” of museum teachers to the northland. The teachers carry over 150 objects with them during their trips to Northern Ontario schools. Dennis Jeanneault is shown all dolled up in the breastplate of an Elizabethan page boy. Different areas of the northland are visited each year by the instructors, to show relics to pupils who are unable to travel to a museum…Trips last five weeks and last year teachers visited 267 schools and talked to 9,300 students.

We wonder how many of those students eventually visited the museum in person.

Unless noted, all images taken from The Royal Ontario Museum: A Handbook (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1956). Additional material from Ontario in Your Car by John and Marjorie Mackenzie (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1950) and the January 25, 1956 edition of the Toronto Star.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

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The original piece did not include these maps of the upper floors.

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The old wing names are still visible if you into the rotunda next to the Queen’s Park entrance. Here’s one side of the first floor, as seen in February 2020…

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…and both sides of the second.

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Toronto Star, August 16, 1955.

Around this time, the ROM received a shout-out in Holiday magazine’s salute to the city.

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Toronto Star, October 20, 1956.

An example of how exhibits were described by the press in the mid-1950s.

Souvenir Views of Toronto, Canada

Originally published as a “Historicist” column on Torontoist on October 2, 2010. Because the original links to the postcards vanished from Torontoist following a site redesign, and because I don’t appear to have any related Word documents, I have no idea if any text other than subject identification appeared under these images, nor what order they were originally presented in. Comments written under the postcards were written in 2020.

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Usually when preparing Historicist, we dig through local archives and libraries to find the pieces of Toronto’s past that are brought to you every weekend. Sometimes the material finds us, as is the case with today’s gallery of postcards submitted by reader Todd J. Wiebe.

The postcards were among a large collection of items donated by the estate of fine art scholar Richard Wunder to the Van Wylen Library at Hope College in Holland, Michigan, where Wiebe works as a librarian and assistant professor. “It is a very large collection,” says Wiebe, “and this past summer was the first we really got around to going through it.” As the materials were being processed and appraised, a worker in the library found the postcards and passed them on to Wiebe “because I’m from Southern Ontario.”

The set contains twenty-two postcards attached to each other accordion-style. They were produced by the Canadian branch of Scottish postcard maker Valentine & Sons. Based on the age of the landmarks depicted, we’re guessing that this package was produced in the mid-to-late 1920s due to the presence of Union Station (opened in 1927, though it had stood largely completed since 1920) and, given the presence of the city’s tallest buildings in the set, the lack of postcards for the Royal York Hotel (opened in 1929) and Commerce Court (opened in 1931).

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Streetcars carried commuters over the viaduct until the Bloor-Danforth subway line opened in 1966.

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That Casa Loma is referred to as Henry Pellatt’s residence makes me wonder if some or all of this series was produced in the early 1920s, as Pellatt was forced to leave the premises in 1923.

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Judging from this view, it appears Lippincott Street was open to traffic in front of Central Tech.

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All five of these churches remain active as of 2020, though the landscapes around them have changed radically.

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Opened in 1899, City Hall was the heart of Toronto’s municipal dramas until city council moved across Bay Street in 1965.

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Completed in 1913, the Canadian Pacific building is currently used for office space.

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North Toronto station closed in 1930. It became the Summerhill LCBO.

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Built in 1914, the building at the southwest corner of King and Yonge was the headquarters of the Dominion Bank until it merged with the Bank of Toronto in 1955. In 2020, it houses the One King West Hotel & Residence.

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Toronto General moved to College and University in 1913. As of 2020, portions of the building fronting College Street houses MaRS.

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Chorley Park, 1915-1961.

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Originally opened in 1903, the King Eddy gained its tower in 1922.

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Several of the buildings in this postcard series seen together.

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The Cayuga was one of several steamers owned by the Niagara Navigation Company. It was retired in 1957 and scrapped four years later.

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Located in St. James Square, the Toronto Normal School trained several generations. Its site served as an incubator for OCAD, the ROM, and Ryerson University. Most of the building was demolished by 1963.

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Not pictured: the iron gates. Or cows.

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Two premiers presided over the proceedings at Queen’s Park during the 1920s – E.C. Drury’s UFO (United Farmers of Ontario) government gave way to Howard Ferguson’s Conservatives in 1923.

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This appears to be an artistic interpretation of the Red Ensign, used as Canada’s flag through 1965.

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Opened in 1915, the Royal Bank Building still stands at 2 King Street East.

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Was the front of Union Station ever this serene during the day?

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“University College” would be a more appropriate description for this postcard. Major additions to the U of T campus during the 1920s included Trinity College and Varsity Arena.

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University Avenue was still a genteel, tree-lined street south of Queen’s Park when this postcard was produced. Laid out in 1829, it was originally conceived as a genteel park boulevard which would lead up to the intended site for the King’s College campus. It was closed to commercial traffic, and no streets were allowed to cross its path. The road was opened up for full use in 1859, and expanded south of Queen Street.

Cooking with Etta and Earl

Originally published as a “Historicist” column on Torontoist on October 30, 2010.

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Earl Warren and Etta Sawyer about to carve poultry on the front cover of Etta Sawyer at the House of Warren: Kitchen Capers at CFRB (Toronto: Personal Library, 1979).

 

When browsing the cookbook section of any thrift shop or fundraising book sale, it’s not unusual to find a few media-related pamphlets or tomes. Whether produced to support a charity or satisfy audience members who misplaced that roast chicken recipe they clipped or quickly transcribed, these cooking tomes provide as much lasting value as glimpses into personalities who once entertained large audiences as they do with culinary advice that may or may not stand the test of time. One such item we found earlier this year is 1979’s Etta Sawyer at the House of Warren: Kitchen Capers at CFRB, which spotlights the kitchen skills of both a popular cooking teacher and a veteran Toronto radio host.

A native of Regina, Earl Warren Segal (who dropped his last name during his first on-air gig at the tender age of seventeen) joined CFRB in 1961 after stints at several stations out west. He spent the next two decades as the station’s honey-voiced late morning/lunchtime host. Warren described House of Warren as “a real homey show” where he chatted to listeners about “anything from my kid’s measles to a fight I had with my wife.” By the early 1980s, the show’s laid-back mix of personal stories, news, and easygoing music drew 116,000 listeners, which was three times more than the nearest competition. Warren’s boss, Alan Slaight, felt that the host “came across as a really warm, natural human being, and that’s not easy to do in radio.”

Among his regular guests by the end of the 1970s was Etta Sawyer, who appeared on Tuesdays and Thursdays to lend her culinary advice to listeners. Born in Hungary, where her family had a long tradition of cooking for nobility, Sawyer began teaching night school cooking classes for the Toronto Board of Education in the mid-1950s. She was hired to supervise the Canadian National Exhibition’s Kitchen Theatre demonstration area in 1962 and first met Warren that year when he appeared as a celebrity chef. As Sawyer remembered in her introduction to the cookbook, they disagreed over what should go into a pot of fudge.

He said he liked plain unadorned fudge, while I on the other hand liked maple walnut. Among the ingredients on the tray there were walnuts so in they went! Besides, this was MY show! The Kitchen Theatre audiences fell in love with him as did I. We were all hooked on Earl.

In 1971, Sawyer established the Academy of Culinary Arts on Bayview Avenue in Leaside, where she taught thousands of students the ways of the kitchen until her death in 1987 (the retail arm of the business continues to serve cooks of all skill levels).

The recipes in the forty-eight-page book were, according to Warren, perfected during a “three-day orgy—cooking orgy that is…Etta has done the cooking and I’ve done the eating!” The featured dishes range from kitchen basics to age-old favourites from both of their families. Among the latter was a recipe for latkes inspired by those Warren’s Grandma Segal made during his childhood that he often discussed on air:

Every day after school, when most kids were having peanut butter sandwiches and milk, I came home to a big glass of chocolate milk and a plateful of hot, fresh pancakes made from potatoes dutifully hand-grated by Grandma every afternoon. I used to eat them while sitting in front of the radio, listening to a program called The Mailbag from Radio CHAB in Moose Jaw. It was then that I decided to carve out a career as a radio broadcaster. I think those pancakes inspired me.

Those looking for similar inspiration can test the simple recipe while enjoying their favourite media outlet:

2 large potatoes, grated
½ cup all-purpose flour
1 large egg
½ cup milk
Dash salt and pepper

Instructions: “Place all ingredients in a bowl and beat until smooth. Fry in hot pan, preferably in vegetable oil.” If desired, grated onions could be added to the mix. In an interview with the Star about the cookbook, Warren admitted, “I am not a top latke-maker. But I am a top latke-eater—especially when it’s Etta making the latkes.”

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The back cover.

 

As for the other dishes in the book, the name of one suggested as an accompaniment to a simple curry may have made readers unfamiliar with Indian cuisine think the authors slipped in a joke about eating man’s best friend: the “e” is usually dropped off the end when you order a rose-flavoured “Lassie” in a restaurant. While there are pictures of the authors sampling the recipes, most of the illustrations show them nurturing Warren’s beloved stable of horses.

Warren remained at CFRB until House of Warren was suddenly axed in June 1983. Station management decided a change was required to draw younger listeners and felt that Warren’s audience was too elderly for their liking to fit the station’s gradual shift to a news-talk format. He ran a travel agency, did PR work for the Constellation Hotel, and continued to dabble in radio through a big band music show based out of Burlington. His final on-air gig was a Sunday morning show on AM 740 that he hosted until two weeks before his death in 2002.

Sources: the March 16, 1980, June 18, 1983, October 25, 1987, and October 20, 2002 editions of the Toronto Star.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

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An early draft of this article combined coverage of this cookbook with The Naked Gourmet, a 1970 collaboration between soon-to-be Toronto Sun editor-in-chief Peter Worthington and cartoonist Ben Wicks. I decided that book was worth a future article of its own, which the world is still waiting for (I don’t own a copy, and never took down notes the times I borrowed it from an institution of higher learning). I’ll leave you with the bizarre cover for now…

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Introductory notes from the authors. Based on the price penciled inside the front cover, I bought this at the Elora Festival Book Sale, during a period where I bought anything historically related to Toronto regardless of what it was. After all, who knew when something might come in handy?

I’ve curbed my buying excesses since this period, gradually getting rid of materials that I’ll either never use or may have one use and are available at local libraries or archives when the time comes to use it. A few cookbooks slipped into my collection, and future posts will plow through those that remain before they find new homes.

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I wasn’t kidding when I said there were a lot of pictures of horses in this book. Over the course of its 48 pages, there are six shots of horses, along with one on the back cover. Warren’s Star obit observed that “he loved horses, but lost a lot of money on them,” which led to his other business ventures. Not surprisingly, there are no recipes for cheval.

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The curry recipe, along with the accompanying lassi. This is an old school interpretation, heavy on the fruit and relying on curry powder for seasoning. Once in awhile I’ll make a dish along these lines, though my preferred recipe turns it into a baked chicken casserole with almonds, raisins, and dried apricots.

If you’d like to browse the entire book, reference copies are available at the Toronto Reference Library and the University of Guelph’s Canadian Cookbook Collection.

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Toronto Star, March 16, 1980.

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Toronto Star, October 25, 1987.

The Story of Mr. Croft

Originally published as a “Historicist” column on Torontoist on May 31, 2008.

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One of the most eyecatching murals on display in Toronto is the colourful piece that acts as a gateway to Croft Street near College and Bathurst. The Monty Pythonesque design may provoke chuckles but the story it relates is a serious one, as the work honours the street’s namesake, the only recorded fatality associated with the Great Toronto Fire of 1904.

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On the evening of April 19, 1904, a nightwatchman noticed flames in an elevator shaft of the E&S Currie Building at 58-60 Wellington Street West. Unfortunately, most of its neighbouring buildings were made of highly flammable wood and designed in ways that fueled fires. The blaze quickly spread and cut a 12-hour path of destruction roughly bounded by Simcoe, Melinda, Yonge and the rail lines. Firefighters from as far as Buffalo assisted Toronto firefighters, with teams from London and Peterborough arriving too late to battle the flames. By 4:30 a.m., the fire was declared to be under control.

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Front Street looking east from Bay Street, April 1904. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1408, Item 2.

Insurance companies and city inspectors quickly assessed the condition of the damaged buildings and prepared a list of properties deemed too unsafe to remain standing. Property owners received notices asking them to bring down their walls immediately or allow the city to demolish the structures. No objections were received.

Over the next few weeks, safecrackers were hired to rescue important documents from the ruins, followed by demolition teams equipped with dynamite. Among the men hired for the demolition was Parliament Street resident John Croft, a recent immigrant from England who had occasionally assisted dynamiters in coal mines in his native land. He was assigned to the W.J. Gage Building at 54-58 Front Street West. His team was not given a storage battery to set off the dynamite and had to resort to lighting long fuses then running for cover (an image associated with modern cartoon gags—a possible inspiration for the mural design?). This worked for the first two explosions that were set on May 4th. The third try proved unlucky for Croft.

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The following morning, The Globe reported on the incident and Croft’s condition:

Croft, with two assistants, William Goudge and A. Ramsden, had set off 30 blasts yesterday morning and at 1 o’clock placed three charges under of portion of the W.J. Gage & Co. wall. Two were exploded safely, but the third fuse, set for a minute and a half, was slow. After waiting for some time, Croft went up the wall to investigate, and as he did the blast went off. The flesh on his right arm was torn to shreds, and he sustained a severe scalp wound and a broken rib. The sight of the left eye was destroyed.

Later that morning Croft died from the shock, leaving behind a wife and three children. He was buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery. Four years later, the former Ulster Avenue was renamed in his honour. The mural was created a century later, followed by a plaque from Heritage Toronto.

Photos of Croft Street by Jamie Bradburn. Additional material from the May 5, 1904 edition of The Globe.

UPDATE

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Croft Street mural and Heritage Toronto plaque, January 12, 2020. 

The mural honouring John Croft on the street named after him was one of my favourites in the city. It was well illustrated, told its story well, and had a funny, bordering on Monty Python-esque sensibility to it. It deserved to be well taken care of.

Over the years, people have had other ideas.

It’s a problem which has also affected street art on the garages further north along Croft Street. Lovely artwork and creative grafitti are ruined by amateurs or those who don’t care about the work of others. One can argue its the cycle and nature of such things, but it feels like an insult to those who invested time in these projects.

Would it be worth commissioning artists to create a new spin on Croft’s story on this wall (as has happened with other murals in the city, such as the depiction of Leslieville at Queen and Jones), or would that fall into ruin quickly?

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The Heritage Toronto plaque has also been poorly treated. Beyond the defacing of the photo, whoever recently sprayed over the plaque may have thought it was part of the wall. Perhaps they left their sunglasses at the scene of the crime.

The sad part?

The plaque was cleaned up a few weeks ago.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

The Globe, May 5, 1904 (left) and May 6, 1904 (right).

Opening the Eaton Centre

Originally published as a “Historicist” column on Torontoist on February 11, 2017.

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Toronto Star, February 10, 1977.

9:10 a.m., February 10, 1977. Chaos reigned on the platforms of Dundas station, which was jammed beyond capacity with people eager to attend the opening of the Eaton Centre. “Passengers got close to hysteria as they were dumped out into dense crowds that couldn’t get through the single open exit fast enough,” the Globe and Mail reported.

Up above, by the entrance to Trinity Square, around 4,500 gathered for the official opening ceremony. A group of trumpeters descended from a balcony, along with 16 costumed representatives of the city’s ethnic communities. Pipers from the Toronto Scottish Regiment led in the official party, then the 48th Highlanders escorted Ontario Lieutenant-Governor Pauline McGibbon, who received the loudest cheers from the crowd. McGibbon, Mayor David Crombie, and other dignitaries cut a red ribbon with scissors presented on blue velvet cushions by Girl Guides. A planned salute to the new mall by the Fort York Guard was scratched when, following a rehearsal, it was felt musket fire would frighten elderly patrons.

The Eaton Centre was still a work in progress. The festivities marked the opening of its first phase, which consisted of an office tower on Dundas Street, Eaton’s new flagship store, and a glass-covered galleria stretching from the store south to Albert Street. The next phase, which would extend the mall to Queen Street, link it to Simpsons, and toss up another office tower, would soon begin with the demolition of Eaton’s old main store.

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One version of the 1960s Eaton Centre, which in this case retained the Old City Hall clock tower. The Eaton Centre: a project dedicated to the revitalization of downtown Toronto. (Toronto: c.1966).

For Eaton’s executives, the day culminated two decades of controversy surrounding the $250 million complex’s development. A mid-1960s plan aroused public opposition when it proposed demolition of Old City Hall. For a time, the idea was scrapped entirely. There were two years of negotiation with Church of the Holy Trinity before an agreement was reached between the congregation and developers to protect the historic church’s access to sunlight. City Council placed several conditions on its approvals for the project, from timeframes for when construction had to begin to ensuring cars parked in the garage weren’t visible to pedestrians along Yonge Street. There were some councillors who didn’t warm to the Eaton Centre—Elizabeth Eayrs called it “a plastic temple of consumerism,” while John Sewell didn’t want to give the developers too much leeway. ”It’s the old question of who is running this place—Eaton’s or council,” Sewell noted in February 1974.

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Globe and Mail, November 24, 1972.

When the building permits were finally approved a month later, Crombie reminded councillors that they should abide an earlier agreement with developer Cadillac Fairview that discouraged a shopping list of design changes. “Some want it black and others want it green,” Crombie noted. “I worry about that sort of thing after watching what has happened in this debate.” Construction pushed ahead, with shovels in the ground by the end of spring.

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“In front of statue of Timothy Eaton, the store’s founder, the Eaton brothers discuss their store’s future. They’re in the foyer of new Eaton Centre at Yonge and Dundas Sts. From left: John Craig, 39, Thor, 34, Fredrik Stefan, 38, and George, 31. Once a week, formally, they meet in Fred’s office to discuss business. They’re among Canada’s wealthiest men, just how wealthy they are is moot. Eaton’s is a private company. Its balance sheets are not for public scrutiny.” Photo by Jeff Goode, 1977. Toronto Star Photo Archive, Toronto Public Library, tspa_0045241f.

As opening day neared, Eaton’s chairman of the board John Craig Eaton told a press conference that the new store would be “the model for all department stores that will be built over the next 20 years.” An ad published in January 1977 whetted shoppers’ appetites with a lengthy guide to the new store’s nine retail floors. At the bottom was 3 Below (the current food court), which catered to youth via fashions, records, live performances, pizza, and subs. While the lower subway level offered a marketplace, the upper subway floor promised “male liberation” with stereotypically manly services, including a barber shop and Sir John’s, described as “a thoroughly masculine steak-style self-serve restaurant licensed under the L.L.B.O.” After two floors geared to women, the third featured an event space. The sixth floor included the largest of the store’s six eateries, the 1,000 seat Marine Room.

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View of exterior of Eaton Centre construction site, with sign. The Queen Street Eaton’s store can be seen in the background. Photo by Harvey R. Naylor, April 18, 1975. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1526, File 84, Item 60.

To prepare for the big day, two-week closing sales were held at Eaton’s Queen Street and College Street (now College Park) stores. Past and present employees previewed the new flagship on February 6. “My God, it’s huge,” noted retiree Alf Ryan. “You need a compass to get around. I think I like it. There were all kinds of memories in the old place but I suppose after a few Christmases, this store will look more lived-in. You gotta keep up with the times, I guess.” A two-day soft opening followed, allowing staff to familiarize themselves with the space.

At the opening ceremony, emcee William Davis joked to the audience that he and the provincial treasurer were eager for Eaton’s new store to open so that they could begin collecting sales tax. The premier got his wish at 10 a.m., when the doors slid away. Salespeople were, according to the Globe and Mail, “decked out as if for a birthday party” with many female employees wearing “braver makeup than they were accustomed to.”

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Globe and Mail, January 1, 1977.

Public reaction was positive. “It’s very easy to shop here if you just follow the instructions they gave in their advertisement,” shopper Isabel Ferguson told the Sun. “I’ve shopped at Eaton’s for 20 years but that’s no reason to get nostalgic about the old store, because looking in the past can cause you trouble.”

Out in the mall, shoppers received giveaways ranging from bags to shoe horns. Of the 150 spaces available in phase one, 120 were leased. Around 25 stores had to miss opening day while conducting appeals related to new federal quotas on clothing imports, which affected their inventories.

The three levels of the main galleria were themed by offerings, as one ad outlined.

Level One will feature fast turnover items, such as records, books, stationery, drugs, food, and impulse buys, as well as banks and other services. Level Two is primarily fashions and accessories. Level Three is made up of specialty shops, fashion boutiques and the better quality outlets of Canada’s major chains.

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“Pipers parade in dignitaries down esclators watched by hundreds in Galleria balconies.” Photo by Dick Loek, originally published in the February 10, 1977 edition of the Toronto Star. Toronto Star Photo Archive, Toronto Public Library, tspa_0109998f.

The Sun sent over writer Margaret Haddrick to provide the female perspective on the mall:

From pre-teens to grandmothers, they’re all there, leaning against the white iron rails, waiting expectantly for the fountain to do its number. Whoosh. Suddenly, up like a geyser shoots a jet of water 45 feet high, splattering it on the stone and glass surfaces around it. The spectacle is brief. The crowds move away and get back to the business of shopping at the Toronto Eaton Centre. Fountain-watching rivals people-watching at the centre. Third subject of study is the mass of exotic plants bathed in sunlight and artificial light. Why, in that warm, bright atmosphere, the philodendron might have a baby leaf by the time it takes to climb from the subway level to the top of the galleria.

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Previewing the Eaton’s store design, Toronto Sun, February 4, 1975.

The paper also provided a male perspective from Ken Becker:

Whether you’re a serious shopper, a browser, a bargain-hunter, or merely one who likes to gaze at pretty sights, the new Eaton Centre has something for you. If you’re looking for a five-foot-two brunette, or a six-foot blonde, you can’t go wrong there. For the new giant climate-controlled city-within-a-city may be the largest single hangout for beautiful women this side of the beach at Rio de Janeiro. The place is lousy with them. They’re hanging over the railings in the multi-levelled mall, sitting at the fountain, sipping coffee in the cafes. And they’re strolling. Always strolling. The stream seems endless.

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Interior view of tables and some stores in new Eaton Centre. Photo by Harvey R. Naylor, May 25, 1977. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1526, File 92, Item 5.

The architecture drew notice. Designed by the Zeidler Partnership, its highlights included the 90-foot-high glass galleria, sunken gardens, and the exposure of its internal building and environment infrastructure. “It responds, with the materials of the seventies, to a long-felt public reaction against the severe, monumental buildings produced in the so-called international style during the sixties,” James Purdie observed in the Globe and Mail. “Zeidler’s solutions are mixture of innovation and proved suburban shopping centre technology.”

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Photo by Dick Loek, 1977. Toronto Star Photo Archive, Toronto Public Library, tspa_0110001f.

While the Eaton Centre quickly proved itself a financial success and a tourist magnet, it compounded the decline of its adjoining stretch of Yonge Street. The outdoor pedestrian mall had fizzled out a few years earlier, and the new Eaton Centre “protected” some shoppers from the tinge of sleaze they felt was descending onto Yonge. Some retailers, like Birks, abandoned the street for the mall. It didn’t help that little of the Eaton Centre’s Yonge Street frontage provided access from the outside. “All the razzle dazzle that should be outside is hermetically sealed inside,” Sun columnist Joey Slinger noted on the eve of the grand opening. “Outside, pedestrians, neighbouring shops, the life that ought to be rocking and rolling on Yonge Street is all alone and feeling blue, stranded under Fort Commerce’s pitiless façade.”

Sources: The Eatons: The Rise and Fall of Canada’s Royal Family by Rod McQueen (Toronto: Stoddart, 1999); the January 14, 1977, January 15, 1977, February 11, 1977, and February 12, 1977 editions of the Globe and Mail; the February 19, 1974, March 5, 1974, February 7, 1977, February 8, 1977, and February 10, 1977 editions of the Toronto Star; and the February 9, 1977 and February 11, 1977 editions of the Toronto Sun.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

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Globe and Mail, June 21, 1974. Click on image for larger version.

Based on the following description published in the November 24, 1972 Star, the Eaton Centre replaced what was then a barren stretch of Dundas Street.

The south side of Dundas between Bay and Yonge at present offers one of the more dismal views downtown. Two Italian restaurants are the only bright spots on a block made up chiefly of parking lots and a rent-a-car lot and garage. The vista through the parking lots is of Eaton’s drab box-like warehouses.

The same article mentioned an interesting land trade that didn’t happen, which some people might interpret as an early 1970s example of “the war on the car” and definitely indicates the regular tension between the city and Metro levels of government. Parkland that was set aside near Trinity Square could have been somewhere else on the property…

The developers had originally offered the city a strip of land along Dundas, but the city rejected the proposal because this land would simply have been acquired by Metro Toronto (which controls Dundas St.) to widen Dundas to six lanes. Metro planners had called for the street widening to support the increased traffic Eaton Centre might be expected to generate; but the city objected, because a widened Dundas on the other side of Bay would have wiped out Chinatown.

(Chinatown moved west along Dundas to Spadina over the next few years, but that’s another story…)

In a victory for the city, Metro reversed itself and Dundas will only be widened 14 feet along the Eaton Centre stretch, to provide one extra turning lane for cars entering the development’s parking garage. On the insistence of Alderman John Sewell, the city also required Fairview to set its buildings back 10 feet from the street, so that the sidewalk can be widened.

gm 1977-01-08 eatons ad Globe and Mail, January 8, 1977. gm 1977-01-11 eatons ad

Globe and Mail, January 11, 1977.

gm 1977-01-13 eatons ad Globe and Mail, January 13, 1977.

A sampling of the ads Eaton’s published in the weeks leading up to the opening of their new flagship store. gm 1977-01-15 eaton store preview ad

Globe and Mail, January 15, 1977. Click on image for larger version.

A guide to the new Eaton’s store, floor by floor. There would be some tinkering; the “Annex 7” floor opened in October 1977 to clear out items a la the old bargain store behind Old City Hall. The space, which had been buying offices, was converted, as a store executive put it, into “an adventure area for bargain hunters” that included opportunity buys and scratch-and-dent items.

I’m not sure at what point 3 Below (which was located where the food court currently sits) closed. I don’t recall ever going into it as a kid in the late 1970s/early 1980s (eager-beaver me would have wanted to visit every floor), and dimly recall signs indicating it was an employee-only area.

gm 1977-02-09 photo Globe and Mail, February 9, 1977. Click on image for larger version.

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Toronto Sun, February 9, 1977. Click on image for larger version.

The next series of images are taken from a 12-page advertising supplement published in the Star on February 8, 1977, two days before the grand opening. For ease of reading, I’ve merged the diagrams which were pages 6 and 7 of the original version.

star 1977-02-08 opening supplement p1 star 1977-02-08 opening supplement p2 credits for who built the store

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star 1977-02-08 opening supplement p5 star 1977-02-08 opening supplement p6-7

star 1977-02-08 opening supplement p8 great pic headline star 1977-02-08 opening supplement p9

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star 1977-02-08 opening supplement p12

Extending Church Street

Originally published as a “Historicist” column on Torontoist on September 3, 2011.

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Mail and Empire, July 17, 1931.

As Toronto grew in the 1920s and its population pushed northward, traffic pressures on the few downtown arteries that ran north of Bloor Street intensified. During that decade, city planners devised several street extensions to relieve increased traffic on Avenue Road and Yonge Street. Of extensions proposed for routes like Bay, Jarvis, and Sherbourne, the lengthening of Church Street from Bloor Street to Davenport Road at Yonge Street was the first built.

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The pre–Church Street extension street grid. Goad’s Fire Insurance Plan, 1924.

The extension received its initial approval during a fiery meeting of the City’s works committee on October 7, 1929, where the $1.1-million plan passed by a 14-13 vote. Alderman Andrew Carrick walked out of the meeting when Mayor Samuel McBride  moved to take the vote without any discussion of the issue—newspapers reported that negative comments he made on his way out of the chamber were drowned out by remarks from other aldermen. Fellow alderman John R. Beamish was one of the loudest opponents of the plan; he believed that other extension projects like the connection of Sherbourne Street to St. Clair Avenue (a plan that eventually evolved into the Mount Pleasant Road extension) were worthier of funding. “This Church Street extension would be a waste of money as at best it would provide merely a temporary relief of traffic,” he told his colleagues. The pro-extension side was best summed up by Controller A.E. Hacker, who noted “there is a lot of traffic congestion east of Yonge Street, and if any improvement is made it has to be started soon. Traffic in this city has got to move regardless of expense.”

The next obstacle was funding. The City assessed property owners along Church from King to Bloor and those 600 feet of either side of that stretch to pay for 75 per cent of the project (the City would fund the remainder). Reaction was mixed among the affected landlords: some at the south end of the street felt the new flow of traffic would make their stretch more attractive and raise property values, while others saw no benefit and wondered why landowners south of King didn’t have to contribute. Among those in favour of the assessments was H.B. MacDonald, who owned 120 Church Street. “Any through street is a help,” he told the Star in February 1930. “It is a benefit to the street and to Toronto. Give a street access to the outlying parts and it will be livened up. From Yonge Street to the Don below Bloor is dead now and I think that this will improve it.”

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40-42 Collier Street, one of the properties in the way of the Church Street Extension, September 18, 1930. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 372, Subseries 3, Item 896.

The project was jeopardized when a petition presented to City Hall at the end of March 1930 showed that 692 out of the 1,081 affected property owners were against the extension due to the funding scheme. The extension was declared dead for a few weeks until it was revived by a Board of Control vote on April 16, 1930, to reverse the funding formula to 75 per cent city, 25 per cent property assessments. Disgruntled property owners remained, such as one who submitted a letter to theStar under the nom de plume of 14th-century English revolt leader Wat Tyler:

The proposed “so-called” Church St. Extension which was petitioned against by a large majority of taxpayers in vicinity is not a real extension, and is not wanted by them. The plan of the route is a miserable one; the cost enormous; the policy destructive, taking into consideration the good houses to be destroyed, the creation of islands of some properties and depreciation of adjacent properties. Church St. owners should not be compelled to finance a motor or transportation road for the benefit of the whole city.

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Lennox Hotel, No. 831 Yonge Street, September 18, 1930. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1231, Item 1109

By October 1930, preparation began to demolish properties along both the extension and the simultaneous widening project along Davenport Road from Yonge Street to Dupont Street. Among the most notable buildings to disappear from the cityscape was the Lennox Hotel at 831 Yonge Street. Built in 1892 by Richard Lennox, it was considered a regular stop for businessmen, farmers, and stagecoach drivers during its early days. Owners who had their properties expropriated seem to have been paid well; a list published in the Star on January 31, 1931, articled 15 properties, mostly along Davenport, for which the owners received anywhere from $1,200 (for part of a township lot) to $10,000 (for 35-37 Davenport Road).

In a timeframe unheard of these days, the TTC quickly constructed a new streetcar loop at Church and Asquith Avenue during late March and early April 1931. According to the June 1931 issue of The Coupler, “it wasn’t a very promising looking site from a beauty viewpoint, and yet we had good hopes that when the loop was completed and the landscape work finished, the Commission would have no reason to be ashamed of its handiwork.” Two houses were demolished to make way for the loop, which allowed the TTC to extend its Church streetcar line (which ran down to Front Street) a few blocks north and not tie up loops elsewhere.

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Asquith Loop, June 13, 1931. Photo by Alfred Pearson. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 16, Series 71, Item 8630.

Passengers passing through the Asquith loop would have disembarked in a neighbourhood that remained primarily composed of family residences, thanks to a bylaw passed by city council on April 7, 1931, that forbade the construction of businesses and apartment houses along the Church Street extension. The bylaw may have been spurred by complaints from nearby institutions like Park Road Baptist Church, whose initial request to have the road be residential was turned down due to the financial opportunities for the City in selling off expropriated land that turned out to be surplus. Several councillors, including future mayor William Robbins, opposed the bylaw on the grounds that a widened street and public transit service made it ideal for apartments.

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One of the storefronts that vanished when Church Street was connected to Davenport Road was Britnell’s Art Galleries at 880 Yonge Street, which was owned by the same family as the Albert Britnell bookstore further south on Yonge. September 29, 1930. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 372, Subseries 3, Item 941

The extension was officially opened in a ceremony along Yonge Street on July 16, 1931. Red, white, and blue ribbons were strung across both Church and Davenport. Mayor William J. Stewart began the string of speeches from City officials by praising the extension as “an asset not only to the district immediately affected, but to the city at large and will be an aid to transportation and business.” He was followed by Controller J. George Ramsden (for whom Ramsden Park was named), who reminisced about the state of the neighbourhood when he lived there in the mid-1880s and boasted about his advocacy of the project. Both men were handed, in the words of the Globe, “a pair of gold-handled scissors taken from a blue case” and proceeded to cut the ribbons—Ramsden took care of Church Street, while the mayor freed up Davenport Road. Following an official motorcade, regular traffic began flowing down the new street.

Though Church Street has not been extended further north since that time, a plan presented to city council by works commissioner R.C. Harris in May 1930 proposed just that. Had that plan gone through, Church would have continued northwest along present-day Davenport Road to the Nordheimer Estate (which met the road at present-day Glen Edyth Drive), then followed the Nordheimer Ravine until the road ended at the intersection of St. Clair Avenue and Spadina Road. Like other ravine-based roadways proposed over time for that area, this plan never came to pass.

Sources: the March 1931 and June 1931 editions of The Coupler; the April 17, 1930, and July 17, 1931, editions of the Globe and Mail; the July 17, 1931, edition of the Mail and Empire; the July 17, 1931, edition of the Telegram; and the October 8, 1929, February 15, 1930, March 29, 1930, April 24, 1930, May 15, 1930, October 10, 1930, January 31, 1931, February 12, 1931, and April 8, 1931, editions of the Toronto Star. In addition, an undated clipping from the Telegram (probably from October 1930) residing in the City of Toronto Archives was consulted. Portions of this post originally appeared on Heritage Toronto’s website.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

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Toronto Star, November 5, 1930.

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Mail and Empire, July 17, 1931.

Toronto for Tourists, 1950

Originally published as a “Historicist” column on Torontoist on December 13, 2008.

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Looking north from the top of the Bank of Commerce Building, 1957. City of Toronto Archives, fonds 1567, series 648, file 7.

The best way to get a comprehensive view of the city of Toronto as a whole is to go to the Canadian Bank of Commerce, at 25 King Street West, between the hours of 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. and take the elevator to the 31st floor. Choose, if you can, a reasonably clear day. From the observation gallery, 426 feet above the street, you will have a superb view of the city and the surrounding country. On a bright day, when there is a north wind, the guide assures us that he can see the spray from the falls of Niagara, at the other side of the lake. When we were up there, there was a mist over everything, but it was beautiful. It seemed to us that we were looking down on the past, present and future of Toronto, almost as if we were pagan gods in a synthetic Olympus.

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The mid-century equivalent of a trip up the CN Tower is one of the many ideas for tourists that John and Marjorie Mackenzie provide in their 1950 guidebook to our province, Ontario In Your Car. For 26 of the book’s 291 pages, the Mackenzies provide visitors with descriptions of local landmarks, historical quotes, and a sneaking suspicion that they prefer exploring the northern wilderness.

Many of the tidbits of information are directed towards Americans, whether it is noting the monument to Zebulon Pike (of Pike’s Peak fame) in Exhibition Place or that “America’s Sweetheart” Mary Pickford was born on University Avenue. Also clarified for southern visitors: what’s the deal with Avenue Road?

Avenue Road is a continuation of University Avenue, and that really is its name. It always seems to strike our American friends as being an utterly incongruous name, but if one remembers that it was far outside the town when Toronto first became a city, and that it was a mere trail which led to the Avenue, it does seem to make more sense. Try to remember this street and how to get to it, for it is probably the one you will take when you leave Toronto for the fishing camps and resorts of the north.

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The Old Mill Hotel, c. 1945. City of Toronto Archives, fonds 1257, series 1057, item 532.

The city’s nightlife rates favourably, with the Mackenzies shooting down the notion that evening amusement did not exist. The Old Mill ranked highly (“dancing every night in a quaint and delightful setting”), while the red and blue colour scheme of the Imperial Room in the Royal York Hotel was headache inducing. Late-night revellers were advised to grab a bite at the original location of the Lichee Garden on Elizabeth Street, which stayed open until 5 a.m. The fun did not extend into Sunday, when blue laws left tourists scratching their heads.

The Lord’s Day Alliance has left a strong indelible mark on the city, for better or worse, and many visitors arriving on the Sabbath, look in dismay at the closed theatres and deserted streets, and they ask: “Where is everybody? What do people do with themselves on Sunday?” The answer is “They are out playing golf.”

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Lou Turofsky at 1950 Grey Cup game, Varsity Stadium. City of Toronto Archives, fonds 1257, series 1057, item 9451.

Golf courses feature significantly in the guide’s breakdown of recreational activities by season. Autumn is regarded as the nicest time of the year, filled with colourful trees, society balls, Broadway try-outs, and the start of hockey season. Football at Varsity Stadium earns a nod, more for university action than professional play, even though Varsity was the site of the 1950 Grey Cup, a.k.a. “the mud bowl.” Winter earns less praise, though this has less to do with available activities than the authors’ preferences. “Not being too keen about skating and skiing, we rather tend to a lukewarm attitude on the virtues of Ontario as a winter resort, but there are many who love it, and who wait impatiently for the snow to fall so that they really begin to live.”

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Views of the construction on Yonge Street at King Street, March 16, 1950. City of Toronto Archives, fonds 1128, series 381, file 31.

One major attraction not mentioned but that would have been noticed by tourists is the construction of the Yonge subway. Construction began in September 1949, with onlookers able to gaze down into open trenches from the sidewalk or temporary decks like the one shown above. Visitors had to wait four years before they had a chance to ride the line.

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Mayor Hiram E. McCallum and Ice Follies performers drink milk at civic reception, Old City Hall, between 1948 and 1951. City of Toronto Archives, fonds 1257, series 1057, item 6678.

The guide also neglects to mention that you could venture into City Hall and enjoy a glass of milk with mayor Hiram (Buck) McCallum.

The Mackenzies’ final verdict on our city?

Toronto may be the capital of Ontario and the centre of population, but it is by no means the whole Province. There are those among you, we are sure, who are looking forward with anticipation to the lakes and streams of the northland, where the bass and trout are waiting for you, where you can hunt wild life with a camera or a gun, and where Nature has not yet been moulded to suit the whims of man.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

Statue which commemorated the opening of the Queen Elizabeth Way, beside Seaway Hotel

Queen Elizabeth Way, circa 1950. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1128, Series 380, Item 64. More on the history of the QEW Monument

A few words about the QEW, from a chapter dedicated to the decade-old highway:

Some people are always in a hurry. It may be because of a restless temperament, or it may be because they have only a very limited time in which to cover everything they want to see. In either case, if time is the essence, the Queen Elizabeth Way is your road.

This is Ontario’s super highway. It is laid out in the modern manner, with divided roadways, clover leafs and circles for merging traffic, and cross-over bridges for the side roads. It is named to commemorate the visit to Canada and the United States of King George and Queen Elizabeth in 1939. The speed limit is 50 miles an hour.

As a rule, we don’t go in much for fast driving, but we have often travelled from Niagara Falls to Toronto, via the Elizabeth Way, in less than two hours.

Park Plaza Hotel, Avenue Road, looking north

Park Plaza Hotel, looking north along Avenue Road, 1936. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1034, Item 173. 

We think the Park Plaza is one of Toronto’s best hotels. It has a small lobby, and practically no public rooms, but the well-furnished bedrooms are unusually comfortable. The cocktail lounges, and the small dining room on the top floor are among the best in town.

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Guild Inn, 1944. Photo by H. James. Toronto Star Photo Archive, Toronto Public Library, tspa_0108031f.

There is another place which we like very much, especially for a golfing holiday. This is called the Guild Inn, and it is about five miles from the eastern city limits, south of Highway 2, at Scarborough overlooking Lake Ontario. It is a delightful inn of the luxury type, with beautifully furnished rooms and lovely grounds stretching for a mile along the famous Scarborough Bluffs. The management will introduce you, if you wish, at four Golf Clubs nearby, two of which are private championship courses. The Guild Inn is unique. It allows you to live in the country and still be near enough to Toronto to enjoy the theatres, the shops and the sights.

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Eaton’s College Street, 1950 (guessing on a Sunday, based on the curtained display windows). City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 16, Series 574, File 16, Item 49357.

If you have any shopping to do, both Eaton’s and Simpson’s are well worth a visit, and if it should be lunch or tea time, we know you will enjoy the pleasant surroundings and good food in the “Georgian Room” at Eaton’s, or the “Arcadian Court” at Simpson’s. Eaton’s College Street store also has an excellent restaurant, the “Round Room,” if you should be in that part of town.

Other brief tidbits:

  • Casa Loma “has no history and no tradition, but it is enormous.”
  • Autumn is the nicest time of the year in Toronto.
  • Of (Old) City Hall, “we predict that, 50 years from now, it will be pointed out as a fine example of late Victorian architecture.”

The book appears to have been designed for golfers, as local courses are discussed in many of the entries, especially around suburban Toronto. Thornhill’s entry is almost entirely about golf, while a trip to the links was the main reason to stop in Aurora. A good chunk of Newmarket’s description is taken up by discussing the Briars Country Club at Jackson’s Point. And so on.

My hometown, Amherstburg, is briefly mentioned in the Windsor section. It focuses solely on Fort Malden and writer Anna Brownell Jameson’s unflattering description of the “wretched little useless fort” during the 1830s. Sadly, Amherstburg lacked a golf course, unlike Windsor, Kingsville, or Leamington (whose links were “flat, but attractive”).